According To The Us Constitution What Is The Official Language India – Economic Development, History and International Relations

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India – Economic Development, History and International Relations

India and Indian civilization have played a major role in the development of mankind, world history and international relations. With a population of about 1.2 billion, India is the world’s largest democracy and the second largest country by population. In recent decades, rapid economic growth and globalization have led to higher living standards and greater integration with the world economy. From 1980 to 2010, India’s Human Development Index (HDI) increased by 62 percent, and life expectancy at birth in India increased from 42.4 to 63.7 years from 1960 to 2008.

Economic growth, development and megacities

India’s rapid economic growth and development has been accompanied by the dramatic rise and growth of so-called megacities. In India and other developing countries, people are flocking to cities and urban areas in search of greater opportunities and higher standards of living. The fruits of their labors and the economic advantages of cities’ financial, human and social capital contribute to the development and urbanization of India.

India will have more than 68 cities with a population of more than one million by 2030, and more than 40 percent of Indians will live in cities with a population of more than one million by 2025, according to the McKinsey Global Institute.

Indian Society, Culture and Language

Indian society is organized by a hierarchical caste system with four levels: priests (Brahmins), warriors (Kshatriyas), wealth creators (Vaishyas), and workers and peasants (Shudras). A fifth group have long been excluded from the formal caste system for doing the dirty work that previously labeled them as “untouchables”. Mahatma Mohandas Gandhi was a leading champion of the poor and untouchables, calling himself harijan (“children of god”) and also going by the term dalits (“downtrodden”). Economic development gradually removed some of the rigidities of India’s class structure.

India is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country. By 2001, more than a million people in India spoke 29 languages, and more than 122 languages ​​were spoken by at least 10,000 people. The primary and secondary official languages ​​of India are Hindi and English respectively.

History – Colonization, Independence and Partition

India’s commercial opportunities attracted companies from Portugal, Holland, England, France and Denmark. The most famous of these outfits was the British East India Company, which was chartered by Queen Elizabeth on December 31, 1600. By 1668, the British East India Company had leased the Bombay enclave. The East India Company’s settlement at Fort William eventually became Calcutta (now Kolkata).

British forces succeeded in stopping the “Indian Mutiny” or First War of Independence, which began when their Indian soldiers rebelled against the cow and lard used in their new rifle cartridges. India officially became a British colony in 1858 when the British army put down the rebellion and the British crown took over the administration of India.

Resistance to British rule by Mahatma Mohandas Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru of the Indian National Congress eventually led to the Government of India Act of 1935. India finally achieved full independence when the Indian subcontinent was officially divided into the separate nation states of India and Pakistan. August 15, 1947.

Politics and Democracy in India

After the promulgation of the Constitution of India as a “Sovereign Democratic Republic and Commonwealth of Nations” on January 26, 1950, India became the world’s largest democracy after adopting universal suffrage (the right to vote) for all adults in 1951.

International Relations and Foreign Policy

India’s relations with Pakistan play a central role in India’s role in international politics and security. The uneasy relationship between India and Pakistan can be traced back to the partition of the Indian subcontinent after World War II, ongoing territorial disputes, particularly over Kashmir, and divided cultural loyalties between Hinduism and Islam. The goals of maintaining peace and stability and preventing any escalation of nuclear weapons guide the foreign policies of many countries in the region, especially the United States and other highly developed Western nations.

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