Advantages And Disadvantages Of Machine Assembly And High Level Language About Computer Generations

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About Computer Generations

Computer is an electronic device used to accept the data in the form of digitalized (binary 0 and 1) to perform some task based on the sequence of instructions program. Five generations of computers,

First generations of computers (1940-56) operated in vacuum tubes. Computers use the vacuum tubes for circuitry and magnetic drums for memory. The drum rotates at a speed of 3000 rpm. This computer is very expensive to operate and it wants more electric power and it produces a lot of heat. First generations of computer understood machine level language, lowest level programming language to perform the operation. Input of the system is punched cards and paper tape and the output was displayed only on printers.

Disadvantage,

It requires more space

Very expensive to operate

It needs more power

Second generation computer (1956-63) transistors replace the vacuum tubes. Transistors are devices that consist of semiconductor material that amplify the signal. Transistors eliminate the disadvantage of vacuum tubes (i.e.) large, heat, energy. The transistors was a superior to the vacuum tubes, allow computers become small, faster, cheaper, reliable, efficient. This computer understood only assembly or symbolic high level language. The high level language such as COBOL, FORTRAN.

Advantage

Small

Faster and reliable

Cheap and efficient

The third generation of computer (1964-71) integrated circuits. In this computer instead of punch cards, printouts, user interact through keyboards, monitors and infrared with operating system, which allow the system run a many application at a time. Computers chips for both CPU and memory are composed of semiconductor materials.

Advantage

It is very speed

Small and reliable

The fourth generation of computer (1971-at present) microprocessor. Microprocessor consists of thousands of integrated circuits. Intel 4004 chip developed in 1971 located all the components of computers from the CPU and memory. There are two components in CPU that are arithmetic logic unit, control unit. This small computer became more powerful and also having GUI, mouse and handheld devices.

Advantage

Small size

More reliable

Easy to use

The fifth generation of computer (Present and Beyond) artificial intelligence. All the devices based on artificial intelligence, are still in development, through some applications, such as voice recognition, that are being used today. Parallel processing, super conductor are used to make the artificial intelligence. The goal of fifth generation computers is to develop that respond to natural language input and capable of learning and self organisation.

Advantage

Easy to access

Easy to use

Small size

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