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Language and Linguistics
Linguistics is the scientific study of language and languages. This includes their essence, the function of human consciousness during the formation of words and their meanings, their reception and impact on the listener.
The exact origin of the language has so far been elusive, although there are several theories, all of which point to its earliest use. For example, hand signals are thought to originate from thoughts, and it is thought that these sounds eventually receive sound, while other studies suggest that objects are given names to reflect their appearance. Other theories claim that primitive grunts and similar sounds emitted during hunting and hard work evolved into distinct words.
However, there are several sub-branches of linguistics, including historical, comparative, grammatical, theoretical, neuro-, psycho-, anthropological, ethno-, social-, computational, and stylistic.
Speech can be defined as the expression of an individual, while writing is considered a form of displacement or symbolization of that speech. Although language is the common vocal behavioral system by which members of a community communicate and can therefore be considered fundamental, only a small fraction of languages have a written form because most cultures are only oral.
Writing itself can be considered voluntary, since it is a collection of habits, can be adjusted at will, and its form is arbitrary to what is transmitted orally.
Linguistics may be considered to encompass two definitions – “language” generally meaning any language, and “dispensing” or any language involving a set of operations.
Synchronic linguistics is the study of any language at any time, such as English in the 16th century, while diachronic linguistics is the study of a language at different historical periods.
Language is not static. Indeed, it is constantly changing, explaining the proliferation of dialects, which themselves arise from socially modified conditions, such as occupation, distance, and time in history.
Language also has a number of characteristics. For example, phonemes are a small inventory of typically 30 to 40 distinct sounds organized in a specific way called phonology. Syntax is a set of words and phrases that make up meanings. Both result in a dual structure of language.
All languages are open, meaning that an infinite number of sentences can be created thanks to the infinite number of ways words can be grouped and used together. As a result, its magnitude cannot be determined.
Language both creates and reflects. In the first case, it creates the culture in which modern man lives and is defined. In the latter, it reflects the social structure of the society in which it is spoken. Kinship terminology, or words related to others, is limited in English, for example, and includes relationships such as mother-father and brother-sister. However, there is no basic term for the bride’s parents in relation to the groom’s father, and so the concept needs to be explained.
Yiddish does not have this deficiency. A single term – “machuten” (male), “machutaneste” (female) and “machutenim” (plural, both genders) – means “in laws”. In Niamal, an Australian tribal language, single terms denote degrees and ties of relationship.
The Navajo language provides an example of how oral communication reflects its culture. In European languages, a person is a part of the ongoing processes of the universe, as shown by such sentences as “I am writing”, “I am driving”, “I am on foot”. and actions such as “I will read”. Navajo, on the other hand, is noun-centered, and man is a part of natural processes. Its sentences are constructed by actor, action, and their reflexive expansion. , for example, “I participated in ‘archery’.”
Culture can further be reflected by the number of words available to express what is important to a people in a language. For example, English has only one word for “camel”, while Arabic has over a thousand. Again, there are several nouns for “snow” in English. but the Alaskan Indians have hundreds. On the contrary, the English language has many words for cars and their brands and types.
Grammatical strategies also reflect culture. For example, verbal conjunctions indicating past, present, future, and conditional tenses abound in English, whereas Hopi does not express tense at all, verbal conjunctions are built around reliability, duration, intensity, and inclination. . His grammar exists without concepts of time and space, but still manages to adequately describe the universe.
Language, as said before, is constantly changing, and there are several ways of doing so.
One of them is conquest. For example, during the Norman Conquest of England, the two languages spoken at the time, Anglo-Saxon (Old English) and Norman French, merged.
Another consequence of this dynamic is the substratum – that is, a language that forms a substratum, in a modified form, only temporarily disappears on the next surface. For example, Latin underwent phonological or sound changes when it was brought to Spain, which explains why the letter “v” was later pronounced as “b”.
Phonological variations also occur when, for example, one area of a country is more important than another due to economic conditions. Until 1600 the “r” was pronounced, trilled, as in Italian, but later it was more throaty, as in French.
Several other phenomena cause language change.
Adstratum occurs when the languages of one or two adjacent speech communities influence the other, as between Bulgarian and Romanian, or between American English and Latin American Spanish. In the latter case, statements were received from the other. For example, Latin American Spanish adopted the phrase “Good weekend” from American English – “Tenga un buen fin de semana”.
The superstratum is perhaps the result of a more forced event, as in Norman French, it is introduced into a speech community by reasons of military conquest, cultural dominance, or colonization that affect the language before it disappears.
Language can be considered to offer five functions to the culture it expresses.
The interrogative question, the first of these, consists of the standard ‘who’, ‘what’, ‘when’ and similar parameters that usually make up the first paragraph of a journalistic or newspaper report, and involves inflectional changes – or changes in voice. pitch. Spanish puts an inverted question mark at the beginning of a written sentence, which is a question, thus alerting the reader to use this inflection silently in their mind.
The second function is a visible question, where orders are replaced by requests. For example, the expression “Close the door” is “Do you agree to close the door?” Elements like “Wow” do not convey meaning.
The third is an argument or dispute. In persuasion, language is used to persuade another person to accept the persuasor’s ideas or ways, as lawyers do in their arguments. This is the main engine of the argument.
The fourth is ritual use. Used in prayer, sermons and official documents, it is predictable, repetitive and often intellectually empty.
Finally, the fifth function of language is to create contact, in this case it is considered “language of communication” and it is “Hello”, “Hello”, “How are you?” includes frequently used greetings such as Usually not meaningful, they rarely expect or elicit responses of any significance, especially if one person is pressed for time and only shows the other’s acknowledgment, such as when two students pass each other in a school hallway or become a prelude to it. real and intended conversation. So they don’t send any messages.
There are also two important terms related to language – dialect and ideolect.
The former dialect is a subvariant of the base language and may share 51 percent of intelligibility with it, introducing modified phonology (sound), morphology (words), and syntax (grammar). American English in the United States is infinitely more uniform than the languages spoken in relatively small countries such as Germany and Italy, although even there there are dialects between Standard and Black American English and between Standard American and Standard English. .
The designation “standard” is used to indicate basic structure, vocabulary and grammar, but does not mean “correct” or “correct”. Since the purpose of language is to communicate verbally, if this intention is achieved between two or more people using slang, it is successful despite the objections of grammarians or Harvard English professors about the “wrong” components.
The second subvariation, ideolect, is the characteristic speech of an individual. Even if two brothers are raised by the same parents in the same town, for example, as they go to school, make different friends, immerse themselves in clubs and activities, their ideologies will change and eventually leave their region of origin.
Like language as a whole, morphemes (words) can change, acquiring new meanings that uproot or even reverse others. For example, in Modern English “deer” refers to a specific animal, but in Old English it refers to any kind of animal, as it is derived from the Old German word “Tier”. “Silly” meant “blessed” in Old English because it comes from an Old German word meaning “selig.”
In modern times, the distinction between “good” and “bad” has become blurred, and in some cases completely reversed. “Hey, you’re a badass” slang can mean that someone is actually good and respectable because they may have used underhanded or unorthodox tactics and ways to get something good.
Some words, such as “ado” and “swell,” may disappear entirely because they have become archaic or no longer serve their original purpose.
However, language serves as the verbal unity of humanity, its culture and society.
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