All Context-Free Languages Are Also Regular Languages Pick One Learning a Language: What Makes Listening Difficult?

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Learning a Language: What Makes Listening Difficult?

Of the four basic English skills, reading, writing, speaking and listening, listening comprehension is the most difficult to acquire. It is also a skill that cannot be “taught”.

Listening comprehension is the most critical and most difficult area in the assessments that university English and foreign language institute EFL students have to take at least three times a semester.

What makes listening difficult?

There are four groups of factors that can affect the difficulty of language listening tasks. Here’s what they are and how they affect listening comprehension skills.

SPEAKER

o How many are there?

Does one person speak at once? Are there multiple speakers? Are some of them talking at the same time?

o How fast they speak

Does the speaker’s pace allow enough “time” for the listener to mentally process the speech? Does the speaker’s language flow faster or slower than the listener is used to?

o What kinds of accents do they have?

Does the speaker (or speakers) have an unusual accent or way of speaking that is less understandable to the listener? Is the listener accustomed to varying accents and speech patterns?

THE LISTENER

o The role of the listener

What is the listener’s purpose in listening? Common sense? Specific information? Fun? Business? Extracting critical data?

o Level of response required

What should the listener do in response to the speech? act? Answer? Do you think? Enjoy? Nothing?

o Interest in the content or topic

Is the listener engaged in the content or topic? Is it something they want, need, or need to know?

CONTENT

o Grammar

Is the grammar and structure used familiar to the listener? Can the listener use or master the grammatical structure used in this context?

o Dictionary

Is vocabulary or lexis used in the speech that is new to the listener? Does the number of new words matter? Noted linguistics author Scott Thornbury says, “Count 100 words in a passage. If more than 10 of the words are unknown, the text has less than 90% dictionary recognition. Therefore, it is unreadable.” The same is true for the listening comprehension passage.

o Information structure

Is the information or material presented in the talk presented in a clear and understandable form for the listener? Is the order of presentation logical, progressive, redundant, or inconsistent?

o Basic knowledge is assumed

Is prior knowledge required to understand speech? Is any prior knowledge of a significant, highly specialized or technical nature required?

SUPPORT

What support is available, if any? Support in this context refers to the presence or absence of pictures, diagrams, or other visual aids to support the text.

While there are a number of approaches that can be used to improve listening comprehension, one important key is regular and consistent practice. An EFL or ESL teacher can also provide a measure of guided practice to develop basic listening comprehension skills. By taking these other factors into account, listening comprehension segments can be identified that are likely to be challenging for learners or that have enough relevant aspects to make them practical and usable.

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