All Languages Are Equal From A Linguistic Point Of View What Are the Stages of Reading Development?

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What Are the Stages of Reading Development?

What are the stages of reading development?

The development of reading can be divided into two main stages: learning to read and reading to learn. Learning to read involves mastering the sound structure of spoken language, understanding the alphabet, decoding words, and speaking fluently. Once readers become fluent, the cognitive demands of reading shift from trying to decipher sound-symbol relationships and decipher words to understanding, understanding another or more points of view on a topic, and acquiring knowledge.

The developmental stages of reading progress continuously throughout our reading lives. Positive early exposure to print and word play sets the stage for early reading success. This often translates into readers who read more often and are able to integrate new learning with their own knowledge.

Learning to read

1. Read ahead

Reading development actually begins before children are aware of printed letters and words. Before learning the alphabet, children need to succeed in oral language skills. These oral language skills begin with exposure to nursery rhymes that help children develop and hear the sounds of words. After children listen to word sounds, they begin to notice the components that make them similar or different. This is called rhyme and alliteration. Rhyme and alliteration lay the foundation for the development of phonological awareness.

At this point, early readers’ understanding of word sounds and patterns allows them to focus on smaller speech sound units. These units are called phonemes. Phonemes are speech sounds that are roughly equivalent to a letter or combination of letters, but not as large as a syllable. When children become proficient in phonemic awareness, they can combine letter sounds, segment phonemes in words, and manipulate phonemes to create new or nonsense words. Being comfortable with separate sounds, being able to break words down into small, meaningless components called phonemes, and being able to control the sound structure of words are skills that are necessary before reading.

Pre-readers should also be good at naming letters. Children who can quickly and accurately identify letters find it easier to learn letter sounds and word spellings than children who are less familiar and accurate. Because knowing the names of letters allows children to learn their sounds faster. That is, it accelerates the pre-reader’s ability to understand the alphabetic principle, which is simply understanding that letters and words are made up of corresponding sounds. This understanding beforehand gives readers the key to “unlock the code” and start reading.

At this stage of reading development, pre-readers master the sound structure of spoken language, pretend to read, retell stories from picture books, enjoy reading stories to them, and recite the alphabet. The pre-reading stage usually lasts from the end of preschool to the middle of kindergarten.

2. Urgent Readers

Aspiring readers can begin by learning how to connect sounds to printed letters and words. They soon understand that letters represent sounds and notice that combinations of letters make different sounds. Parents and teachers often see the beginning of this stage when children use invented spelling. This occurs when beginning readers write words as they sound, which is a typical part of this stage of development because these beginning readers overgeneralize their new skills because they only have a rudimentary understanding of reading rules. Speedy readers often memorize the visual, i.e., orthographic components of words or whole words, and develop a “sight” vocabulary. Therefore, this stage is characterized by increased sound-symbol compatibility, increased visual memory of high-frequency “sight” words, and invented spelling.

Children in the emerging reader stage read high-frequency words as well as phonetically normal words, continue to enjoy reading stories to them, enjoy stories that are predictable and relatable, need exposure to new vocabulary to increase their comprehension, and are usually monosyllabic, sometimes bisyllabic. able to pronounce syllable words. The emergent reader stage usually lasts until the end of kindergarten or the middle of first grade.

3. First Readers

Early readers are in the beginning stages of fluency. They are usually more efficient at sounding out words and increasingly automatic at recognizing and decoding parts of words. At this stage, readers learn how to break down common parts of words (such as re-, un-, -ed, or -ing) to improve efficiency between words. As their fluency increases, early readers have more cognitive processes to understand what they read. Therefore, they increasingly focus their energy on understanding what they are reading. Early readers soon realize that there is more to the text than is clearly stated, and they may find that they have to reread a sentence or passage to understand what is meant. This is an important step in reading development as readers begin to be strategic, realizing that they are reading for a purpose. The early reading stage usually lasts until the end of second grade.

4. Pass Readers

Transitional readers improve and expand decoding skills, increase automaticity of word recognition, increase reading speed, improve vocabulary, and improve comprehension. This stage can be considered a continuation of the early reader stage or a prequel to the fluency stage. The transitional reader stage can last until the end of the third grade.

Read to learn

5. Fluent Readers

Fluent readers are comprehension readers. At this stage, they move from learning to read to reading to learn. At this stage, reading becomes more purposeful. Students can access their background knowledge to gain insight into and connect with the written text. At this stage, readers began to more fully develop their understanding of implicit meanings. They are able to read finer nuances in the text. Fluent readers are exposed to strategies they can use to understand what they read, and they continue to learn new words that help with comprehension. Fluent readers are usually able to perceive or see only one point of view in the text they are reading. This stage can last until the end of the ninth grade.

6. Multiple Viewpoints Readers

Readers in the multiple viewing stage are able to critically analyze the text they are reading from different perspectives. They usually read a wide range of styles and topics. Readers with multiple perspectives understand the metaphors and allegories they use to make sense of a text. They continue to develop their vocabulary and use many strategies to increase comprehension. At this stage, students learn to write creatively and persuasively. The multiple viewing phase usually lasts until the end of high school.

7. Construction and Reconstruction Readers

Construction and remodeling readers usually read for their own purposes (either for knowledge or pleasure). These readers generally have a very fluent and efficient approach to reading. They have many strategies they can use to make sense of what they read. Construction and reconstruction readers are able to read multiple perspectives, critically analyze the views and information from each, and then synthesize and expand on that information with their own thinking. Readers at this stage of development are experts. How much the reader develops at this point depends on his motivation, needs and interests. The more experience a person gets, the better.

Summary

This article divides the 7 stages of reading development into two categories: 1. Learning to read and 2. Reading to learn. The primary purpose of reading is to obtain information from a text, so readers must be able to identify individual words quickly in order to have sufficient cognitive resources to understand words, sentences, and paragraphs.

Early stages of reading development focus on the development of sound-symbol relationships, decoding skills, sight word identification, and fluency. Once these skills become automatic, readers have more cognitive resources for the comprehension stages of reading development. As readers progress through the Reading to Learn stages, they become increasingly proficient in their comprehension skills. Finally, as readers enter the stage of construction and reconstruction, they become producers of new knowledge, not just consumers, using their critical analytical skills.

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