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How to Write an Abstract
An academic abstract is a brief restatement of all the important points of a research paper. An abstract is a paragraph and is usually subject to specific word limits of less than 300 words. It stands alone under a title or at the end of a paper. Please note that an abstract is NOT an introduction or outline to an article. In the words of Craig W. Allin, “abstracts are an exercise in writing with precision and efficiency.”
In fact, the abstract is written after the research and the entire article is completed. It must be written in the same language as the paper and translated into one of the world languages. We can say that the main purpose of the abstract is to allow a quick assessment of the applicability, importance and reliability of the research work. But always remember that the reader KNOWS the topic but has NOT read the paper.
The abstract presents information in four general sections: INTRODUCTION, METHODS, RESULTS and RESULTS. It should be noted that the abstract is text only and strictly follows the logical sequence of the article. That is, the abstract should be parallel to the structure of the original paper. At the same time, NO adds new information, i.e. not mentioned in the paper. Now note that the abstract can be viewed as a stand-alone document. That is why it must be unified, coherent (ie, providing an appropriate transition or logical connection between the data entered), concise and self-contained. In other words, the abstract must be complete in itself.
Of course, sometimes the abstract will be read along with the title, and generally it will be read without the rest of the paper. In fact, we can think that the abstract is the most important part of a scientific article. Hence, inclusion of all keywords related to the study is a must. Note that keywords (also called search terms) represent the most important terms or concepts (words or phrases) relevant to your topic.
There are two types of abstracts: description and informative. The description or indicative abstract, defines the content of the research or the main topic of the article, demonstrates the organization of the article without presenting conclusions or conclusions. So not very informative. This type of abstract is always very short, usually less than 100 words; and useful for long reporting. On the other hand, informative an abstract, also known as a summary, provides the main argument and summarizes the main information, giving the reader an overview of the study’s aims, methods, findings, and conclusions. So be specific. You may also have heard of a “structured abstract” — a subtype of an informative abstract that consists of more than one paragraph.
What should be included?
The content of the abstract includes:
- Motivation and purpose: main topic or research question and a review of relevant literature.
- Features: problem statement, approach, objectives, hypothesis, research methodology (method(s) adopted or search strategies).
- Results: main results (proposed solutions to the problem) and discussion.
- Conclusions and conclusions/conclusions: what the results mean and additional points.
As we can see, it should be noted in the abstract:
- Problem solved and some background information.
- Proposed solution or idea (newly observed facts).
- An example of how this works.
- Evaluation: comparison with existing answers/techniques.
Next, the abstract should answer the following questions:
- What and why.
- What did you find?.
- How did you.
So how do we get started?
What would be an effective way to start a summary? Let’s review some introductory sentences to help you on your way.
First, let’s look at some opening sentences that DO NOT present real information:
- This article provides information on a method …
- The article explores the concepts …
- The purpose of our research is to consider how…
- The purpose of this study is to determine …
So it is clear that you should avoid writing a scope statement.
On the other hand, the following sentences are good examples of introductory phrases because they go directly into the topic. They give something to the reader. Let’s see how it works:
- The development process of hypermedia and web systems presents very specific challenges that are not seen in other software programs, such as…
- Given a large data set, a common data mining problem is to extract frequent patterns that occur in that set.
- According to many recent studies, it has been found that the influence of learning style on academic performance is significant and that mismatch between teaching and learning styles leads to learning failure and frustration..
The do’s and don’ts of abstract writing
- Write a single paragraph.
- Respond to specific word length.
- Answer the questions: what, why and how.
- Use language familiar to the reader.
- Use multiple keywords.
- Write short sentences.
- Improve transitions between sentences.
- Use the active voice.
- Use third person singular.
- Begin with a clear introductory statement written in the present tense.
- Use the past tense in the main part.
- Write a conclusion in the present tense: just say what the results mean (eg “These results show that…”).
- Correct the grammar.
- Use headings, subheadings, and tables as guides for writing.
- Print and read the abstract again.
- Do not cite parts of the article.
- Do not include references to literature, figures, or tables.
- Do not use abbreviations.
- Do not add new information.
- Don’t add too much information.
- Do not add a review.
- Do not repeat information.
- Do not repeat the title of the article.
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