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Cocoa Touch Introductory Overview For Programmers Brought Up on C
Cocoa Touch is a framework for developing touchscreen applications: it includes user interface elements, event dispatching, application lifecycle, and so on. It also includes object wrappers around essential data types (strings, collections).
Most of the Cocoa Touch classes are designed to be called directly from your code; you can subclass these classes to add functionality, but you need to do so much less often in Cocoa Touch than in other languages.
The Cocoa Touch application frameworks contain most of the classes you will use to develop your first applications. The term comes from Cocoa, the object-oriented frameworks developed for Mac OS X programming (and NextStep before it), along with GUI classes uniquely designed for use on a mobile, touchscreen device (hence the “Touch”).
Cocoa Touch’s Foundation framework includes essential data classes, includes basic utilities, and establishes some core programming conventions that cannot be expressed by the Objective-C language alone, such as techniques for managing memory. Almost all Cocoa classes inherit from a root class, NSObject defined in Foundation.
Perhaps the first and most important thing to discover in Foundation is its data management classes, which are used throughout Cocoa instead of the procedural C equivalents. For example, the traditional C suing, the null-terminated char array, is almost never used in Cocoa. Instead, you use NSString, which represents not only the character data, but also its encoding: with rich support for Unicode (and the UTF-8 and UTF-16 encodings), the NSString makes it easy to convert text in any of the dozens of character sets on the iPhone.
Cocoa also provides a deep set of collection classes, eliminating the need for most uses of C arrays (or hand-rolled collections, such as linked lists and hash tables). Three classes are used for collecting Cocoa objects: NSArray for ordered collections of objects. NSSet for unordered collections, and NSDictionary for mapping key objects to value objects. These three collections are immutable – once initialized, they cannot be changed. If you want to add, delete, or otherwise change their contents, use the mutable subclasses NSMutableArray, NSMutableSet, and NSMutableDictionary.
The collections can only store NSO objects. If you have C primitives, you can pass them through Cocoa with the wrapper classes NSData and NSMutableData, which wrap a byte buffer, and NSNumber, an object container for any of C’s scalar (numeric) types, such as int, float, or bool .
Cocoa has some more specific data classes, including NSURL for URLs (including file://-style URLs that represent items on the local file system, although you also often use NSString paths), and timekeeping classes like NSDate and NSTimeZone.
The “Touch” part of Cocoa Touch is largely represented by the UIKit framework, which is also imported by default in every iPhone application. This framework provides the drawing model, event handling, application lifecycle, and other essentials for a touch-based application. You will largely interact with it through the various user interface component classes it provides: UIButton, UlTextView, UlTableView, and so on. Between the data types in Foundation and the UI components in UIKit, Cocoa Touch gives you an excellent base on which to start coding your app.
In summary you must now understand that; Cocoa and Cocoa Touch are software frameworks that provide developers with the ability to create intuitive applications using desktop Mac OS X and seamlessly transfer them to the iPhone OS. It is this tight integration into the Xcode development scheme, (Apple calls it their developer’s ecosystem) that makes app development under the big Apple environment such a smooth process. Additionally, Cocoa’s higher-level API setup makes the tasks of adding “cool” features like networking, animation, and that certain i-Family look to your app, with relatively efficient coding, so much easier than other programming environments… put in the time to learn its features. Like all smart things, there is some education that needs to be done before starting your career.
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