C Was Chosen As The Base Language For C++ Because Android Application Development and Its History

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Android Application Development and Its History

What is Android?

Android is a powerful open source Linux-based operating system (OS) mainly used for smartphones and tablets. It is one of the most widely used mobile operating systems (OS). It is a software stack that includes OS, middleware and key applications. The Android software development kit (SDK) provides the tools and application programming interface (API).

The main platform of Android is Java It uses java library. And the applications are coded in Java, C++ and C (core). A only app that has more than 700,000 apps and more downloaded in the market. These apps are updated and many more are released daily.

History of Android:

Android is developed by Open Handset Alliance led by Google. The Open Handset Alliance includes nearly 86 hardware, software and telecommunications companies. The initial developer of Android was Android Inc., and later Google bought it in the year 2005. The Android code is open source released by Google under Apache license.

It was founded by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick Sears and Chris White in Paulo Alto, California, USA in October 2003.

The Android Open Source Project is also led and mandated by Google for the maintenance and development of Android. The main goal is to create a successful real product and improve mobile experience for end users.

Components of Android Architecture:

The major components of Android architecture are:

o Applications – a set of core applications written in Java programming language.

o Application Framework – An open source development that manages all the applications involved in it.

o Libraries – It is a set of C/C++ libraries used by various components throughout Android system.

o Android Run-time – All applications can run on its own process, with its own instance of Dalvik Virtual Machine.

o Linux Kernel – It relies on Linux version 2.6 for kernel system management such as security, process management, memory management and network stack and driver model.

Features of Android:

o Application framework – enables reuse and replacement of components.

o Dalvik Virtual Machine – optimized for mobile devices.

o Integrated browser – open source web set engine.

o Optimized graphics – powered by 2D and 3D graphics.

o Sq Lite for data storage

o GSM technology

o Camera, GPS, Compass, etc.

o Media support

o Bluetooth, EDGE, Wi-Fi, 3G.

History of Android Versions:

The specialty of Android app is its version. And they are created in alphabetical order. And all versions belong to a Dessert name. Each version has its own sub-version and is released periodically. The sub-versions are released more or less in the same year in a constant period of different months.

The first release was on November 2007 and after that many updates have been made from its original operating system and each update fixes bugs and adds new features from the previous version.

Versions in Android:

Versions of Android and their year of release:

1. Beta – 5 Nov 2007.

2. v1.0 – 23 Sept 2008.

3. v1.1 – 9 Feb 2009.

4. V1.5 cupcake – Apr 30, 2009.

5. V1.6 Donuts – Sept 15, 2009.

6. V2.0 Eclair – Oct 26, 2009.

7. V2.2.x Fro-yo – May 20, 2010.

8. V2.3.x Gingerbread – Dec 6, 2010.

9. V3.x Honeycomb – 22 Feb 2011.

10. V4.x Ice Cream Sandwich – Oct 19, 2011.

Advantages of Android:

1. Multi-touch.

2. Multiprocessor.

3. Multithreaded OS.

4. Rich internet access.

5. Open source platform.

6. Easy to handle and implement.

7. User friendly.

8. Enabled Security.

9. Support all formats of image and video.

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